環境分析與微波化學實驗室

Environmental Analysis and Microwave Chemistry Laboratory

Dr. Shu, Youn Yuen

研究領域 Research Fields

 

環境污染物、葯物、天然化合物等檢測方法開發

Development of Environmental Testing Methods

微波能在化學上之應用—符合永續發展的科技

Application of Microwave Energy in Chemistry –

A Technology Supports Sustainable Development

 

微波原理與應用

Theory and Application

 

研究項目Research Projects

 

文獻Publications

 

研究領域Research Fields

 

微波能在化學上的應用

Applications of Microwave Energy in Chemistry

環境污染物、葯物、天然化合物等檢測方法開發

Development of Environmental Testing Methods

 

微波能在化學上之應用—符合永續發展的科技

Application of Microwave Energy in Chemistry

--- A Technology Supports Sustainable Development

-          

微波原理與應用

  微波能在通訊以外的使用可追溯到五十年代,而它在化學方面的使用則鮮有探討。一直到最近十年,微波能在化學上的潛力才開始被發掘出來。它成功的被運用在化學反應、環境保護、萃取技術上,並且表現出:節省能源與時間、減少操作程序、減少有機溶劑使用、降低所產生廢棄物對環境之負荷等優點,是一項符合永續發展(Sustainable Development)觀念的科技。

  微波能在化學上的應用可以說是剛在起步階段,它所呈現出來的現象,有許多仍待進一步探討,這些知的奧秘,有待大量對微波化學基礎研究的投入。可以預知的是,對此技術的研發,可以把農產加工技未術,化學工業,製藥工業,中藥提純,分析技術,環保工業帶入一個新的領域之中。它的優點更是符合目前人類所關注的永續發展新關念。

應用範圍:

 油脂工業  中藥提純  食品工業  特殊化學反應

 分析化學  環境去污染 香精萃取

優點:

   高品質     高產率     高選擇性

   節省時間    降低成本    減少毒性廢棄物的產生

適用物質:

   藥用植物中有效成份萃取動、植物組織中

   脂肪、甘油類等之提取油精、香精、香料

   之萃取除去產品中不必要的雜質土壤去污染

 

微波萃取技術的發展目標與展望

  (一)為何要發展此技術 更乾淨的生產程序

    1、降低成本、提高競爭力

    2、大幅減少能源、時間、人力的消耗

    3、大幅減少對環境、健康有害廢棄物的產生

  (二)在萃取工業上的應用、現況、與前景

    1、天然化合物的提純(包含中藥、香精、油精)

    2、去污染工業(土壤去污染、廢棄物資源重生)

    3、改進分析化學技術(準確度、精密度、高效率)

  (三)微波萃取設備的介紹

    1、連續進樣式(開放式)

    2、批次進樣式(封閉式、開放式)

    3、實驗與前導模擬廠的設備

    4、新一代微波萃取設備的計劃方向

    5、新舊技術的整合

 

Theory and Application

Theory

Microwave heating was originally developed for the food and coal industries and is now also used for environmental decontamination, analytical chemistry, and chemical reactions. The fundamental of microwave application is that some materials are transparent to microwave radiation and some are not under a given frequency. The "transparent" means materials have no or very small absorption of microwave energy; and the "non-transparent" means materials adsorb significant amount of microwave energy. The ability of material to dissipate microwave energy is defined as dissipation factor, tand, which is derived from the dielectric loss factor and real permittivity.

tand e'' / e'

Where e' is called real permittivity (often called the dielectric constant, but not that this "constant" is a function of frequency and temperature), and e'' is called dielectric loss factor and express the efficiency of the material in converting electromagnetic energy to heat.

The microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum lies between wavelengths of 1 cm to 1 m (frequencies of 30 GHz to 300 MHz). In order not to interfere the uses of telecommunications, application of the microwave frequencies for domestic, medical, scientific and industrial fields are limited to operate at 890-940, 2437-2513, 5725-5875 and 22000-22250 MHz. Microwave energy is not high enough to interact with bonding orbitals but is enough to affect rotation around bonds and in some cases can assist in bond bending.

Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE)

The applicability of microwave irradiation to the extraction of various types of compounds from plant materials, food and soil was reported in 1985. In the past few years there has been a growing interest in the use of microwave heating in environmental/biological/chemical product sample analysis and decontamination treatment. The Microwave-Assisted Process (MAPTM) was developed and patented by Environment Canada.

Fast, Efficient and Environmentally Responsible Sample preparation Methods for the Analytical Laboratory

Advantages

l        reduced volumes of solvent used

l        possible use of less toxic solvents

l        reduced energy consumption

l        reduced processing times

l        improved processing efficiencies, higher recoveries and more selective extraction

Applications

l        Environmental - toxicity test, environmental contaminants in various matrices.

l        Agri-food - food safety analysis, contaminants in plants and animal tissues, foodstuff development, nutritional analysis.

l        Other Sectors - forensic, polymers, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, cosmetics, consumer products and quality control.

l        Developing a green technology for extraction industry

Other Important Applications of Microwave Energy

l        Microwave Digestion for Elemental Analysis

l        Microwave-Assisted Reactions

l        Oil Recovery by Microwave Radiation

l        Microwave Catalysis

l        Reduction of SO2 and NOx Emission by Microwave Radiation

l        Microwave Spaller for Concrete Decontamination

l        Microwave Vitrification of Radioactive Waste

研究項目Research Projects

1. 微波開放與密閉式萃取環境樣品中污染物質之研究

Extractions of PAHs, PCBs, OCPs, and other pollutants from environmental samples by open- and closed microwave-assisted methods.

2. 中葯成份及天然化合物微波萃取與產業技術發展之研究

Microwave extractions of herbs and natural products and its industrial applications.

3.      微波與其它新舊技術之結合

The hyphenation of microwave and other traditional/modern techniques.

文獻Publications

(A)期刊論文

 

1.The 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition of 3?Methyl?5?Phenyl?Isoxazoline N?Oxide. Y. L. Chow, Y. Y. Shu, B. H. Baker, and K. S. Pillay, Heterocycles, 29, 2254, 1989.

2.Improved Preparation of Hexakis(6?Deoxy)Cyclomaltoheptaose and Heptakis(6?Deoxy)Cyclomaltoheptaose. H. H. Baer, A.V. Berenguel, Y. Y. Shu, J. Defaye, A. Gadelle, and F. Santoyo Gonzalez, Carbohydr. Res., 228, 307, 1992.

3.Interlaboratory Variability on the Determination of Poly Chlorinated Dioxins/Furans in        Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents.R. C. Lao, Y. Y. Shu, G. Poole, R. Thomas, C. Chiu, and R. Turle.Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds, Dioxin'93, 11, 53, 1993.

4.Water Pollution Control Measures in Taiwan. C. Lao and Y. Y. Shu, The Water Qual. Res. Journal of Canada, 30 (1), 143,1995.

5.Interference of Transformer Oil Matrices to the Internal Standards on PCB Quantification. Y. Y. Shu, C. Chiu, J. E. Dowdall, and R. C. Lao.International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 60, 185, 1995.

6.Environmental Sample Cleaning and Extraction Procedures by Microwave?Assisted Process (MAPTM) Technology.Y. Y. Shu, J. Holmes, R. C. Lao, and C. Chiu. Microchemical Journal, 53, 96, 1996.

7.Microwave vs Soxhlet for the Extraction of Dioxins and Furans from Solid Samples. Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds, 27, 333, 1996.

8.Microwave?Assisted Process (MAPTM): Applications to Ambient Air Sample Clean-up.Y. Y. Shu, J. Holmes, J. M. R. Belanger, J. R. J. Pare, and R. C. Lao. Submitted for publication in the Journal of Air and Waste Management Association. Air and Waste Management Association Conference, 96-FA150.06, June, 1996.

9.Microwave-Assisted Solvent Extraction of a Sediment Reference Material for the Polychlorinated Biphenyls Analysis. Y. Y. Shu, Chung Chiu, R. Turle, T. C. Yang, and R.C. Lao, Organic Hologen Compounds, 31, 9 - 13, 1997.

10.Quantitative Characterization of PAHs in Burn Residue and Soot Samples and Differentiation of Pyrogenic PAHs from Petrogenic PAHs- The 1994 Mobile Burn Study,Zhendi Wang. Merv Fingas,Y.Y.Shu,Lise Sigouin,Michael Landriault,and Pat Lambert,Rod Turpin and Phil Campagna,Joseph Mullin , Environmental Science and Technology, 33, 3100 3109, 1999.

11.Analysis of  Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Sediment Reference Materials By Microwave-Assisted Extraction.Y.Y.Shu.R.C.Lao,C.H.Chiu,R.Turie,Chemospere ,in press. 

 

(B)  研討會論文

 

1.Interference of Transformer Oil Matrices to the Internal Standards on PCB Quantification. Y. Y. Shu, C. Chiu, J. E. Dowdall, and R. C. Lao. Proceedings of the 24th. International Symposium on Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Ottawa, Canada, May 16-19, p.3P21, 1994.

2.Environmental Sample Cleaning and Extraction Procedures by Microwave? Assisted Process (MAPTM) Technology.Y. Y. Shu, J. Holmes, C. Chiu, and R. C. Lao. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Analytical Chemistry, Changchun,August 2 - 6, p.243, 1994.

3.Microwave?Assisted Process (MAPTM): A Survey of Applications to Sampl Preparation. J. M. R. Belanger, K. Li, Merv Fingas, R. C. Lao, Y. Y. Shu, and J. R. J. Pare. Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Capillary Chromatography, Riva del Grade, September 16 - 20, 1994.

4.Applications of the Microwave-Assisted Process (MAPTM) To Polyurethane Foams (PUFs) and Urban Dust Filters for Monitoring of PAHs.Youn Y. Shu, Robert C. Lao, Jacqueline M. R. Belanger, Merv F. Fingas and J. R. Jocelyn Pare. Proceedings of the Tech. Sem. on Chemical Spills, Edmonton,Alberta, June 12-13, 1995.

5.The Role of Taiwan in the World Environment Policy and Sustainable Development. R. C. Lao, Y, Y, Shu, and H. C. Wei. Proceedings of the 1995 International Chinese Environmental Protection Conference (ICEP-95'), San Francisco, California, USA, January 21 - 22, 1995.

6.Microwave-Assisted Process (MAPTM): Applications to Sample Extraction. J. R. J. Pare J. M. R. Belanger, Y. Y. Shu, R. C. Lao, M. F. Fingas, and K. Li, Environment Canada; R. D. Turpin, R. Singhvi, and D. W. Charter, US Environmental Protection Agency; S. S. Stafford and D. R. Gere, Hewlett Packard Company. Proceedings of the Pittsburgh Conference '95, March 5-10, 1995.

7.Air Sample Cleaning and Extraction Procedures by Microwave-Assisted Process (MAPTM)Technology.R. C. Lao, Y. Y. Shu, J. Holmes, J. M. R. Belanger, and J. R. J. Pare. Proceedings of the 10th World Clean Air Congress and Exhibition,Espoo, Finland, May28 - June 2, 1995.

8.Microwave-Assisted Process (MAPTM): Applications to Sample Extraction. J. R. Jocelyn Pare, Jacqueline M. R. Belanger, Youn Y. Shu, Robert C. Lao, Merv F. Fingas, and Ken Li, Environmental Technology Centre, Environment Canada. Rodney D. Turpin, Raj Singhvi, and David W. Charters, Environmental Response Branch,United States Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ 08837, USA. Proceedings of the 78th Canadian Society for Chemistry Conference, Waterloo, Ontario,May 28 - June 1, 1995.

9.Environmental Sample Cleaning and Extraction Procedures by Microwave-Assisted Process (MAPTM) Technology.Y. Y. Shu, J. Holmes, J. M. R. Belanger J. R. J. Pare and R. C. Lao. Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Capillary Chromatography and Electrophoresis, Wintergreen, Virginia, May 7 - 11, 1995.

10.Microwave-Assisted Process (MAPTM): A Survey of Applications to Sample Preparation. Jacqueline M. R. Belanger, Ken Li, Merv F. Fingas, Robert C. Lao, Youn Y. Shu,Monique Punt, and J. R. Jocelyn Pare.Proceedings of the International Microwave Power Institute '95, Denver, Colorado, July9-12, 1995.

11.The Development and Evaluation of Large-Scale Industrial Applications of the Microwave-Assisted Process (MAPTM).Monique M. Punt, C. Yvan Bastien, Jacqueline M. R.Belanger, Youn Y. Shu, Benoit Thibert and J. R. Jocelyn Pare. Proceedings of the International Microwave Power Institute '95, Denver, Colorado, July 9-12, 1995.

12.Applications of Microwave Energy in Chemistry - A Technology Supports Sustainable Development.Y. Y. Shu,J. M. R. Belanger, M. Punt, J. R. J. Pare and R. C. Lao.Proceedings of the 2nd. China Association for Science and Technology Academic Conference for Young Scientists, Beijing, July 26 - 28, 1995.

13.Microwave-Assisted Process (MAPTM): Its Applications to Environmental Sample Analysis        and to Industrial Process.R. C. Lao and Y. Y. Shu. Proceedings of "The Third China-Taiwan Conference for Environmental Protection", p. 733 - 742, Beijing, August 27 - 30, 1995.

14.Microwave-Assisted Process (MAPTM): Its Applications to Air Sample Preparation and Industrial Process.R. C. Lao, Y. Y. Shu, and J. Pare. Proceedings of the Air & Waste Management Association, 1995 Pacific Rim Environmental Conference, San Francisco, California, October 2 - 4, 1995.

15.Method Development Using Microwave-Assisted Process: En Route Toward a More Efficient and Responsible Sample Preparation Laboratory.Proceedings of the COLACRO VI, Caracas, Venezuela, January 22 - 25, 1996.

16.The Use of the Microwave-Assisted Process Under Atmospheric Pressure Conditions: A Versatile Tool for the Extraction of Flavour and Fragrances.Proceedings of the COLACRO VI, Caracas, Venezuela, January 22 - 25, 1996.

17.The Microwave-Assisted Process: Principles & Applications for the Laboratory and for Production-Scale Activities. Invited Plenary Lecture for one full week.J. R. J. Pare, J. M.R. Belanger, Y. Y. Shu, K. Li, M. M. Punt, B. Thibert, Y. Bastien, and R. C. Lao. Full Training Course open to General Public, Beijing, February, 1996.

18.The Hyphenation of MAP-SFE: A Perspective. The 7th. Symp. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Ectraction. J. R. J. Pare, Y. Y. Shu, J. M. R. Belanger, R. D. Turpin, and R. Singhvi. Invited Lecture. Indianapolis, IN, USA, April 1996.

19.Determination of OCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs in Environmental Samples Using the Microwave Extraction Technique. Proceedings of the EUROANALYSIS IX, Bologna, September 1 - 7, 1996.

20.微波萃取在分析化學之應用The Applications of Microwave-Assisted Extraction in Analytical Chemistry,中加微波化學研討會論文集 Taiwan-Canada Bilateral Microwave Chemistry Symposium, May 26 - 27, 1977.

21.Microwave-Assisted Extraction of a Sediment Reference Material for the Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Procedings of the EnviroAnalysis'98, Ottawa, Canada, May 11-14, 1998.

22.The Application of Microwave Extraction Technology to the Analysis of Toxic Organic Substances Found in Air Samples. Proceedings of the Atmospheric Sciences to Air Quality, 6th International Conference, Beijing, China, November 3-5, 1998.

 

(C)技術報告及其它

Agriculture Canada Research Report

Chemical Characterization of Bond Aliphatic Compounds Responsible for the Aggregates Stability. H. Dinel and Y. Y. Shu, Land Resources and Research Centre, Agriculture Canada,1992.  

Environment Canada Research Report

1.A DMSO? and HPLC? Based Sample Cleanup for the Determination of PCB in Transformer Oil. Y. Y. Shu, R. C. Lao, C. Chiu., Report No. CD 94-5, Environmental Technology Centre, Environment Canada (1993).

2.Interference of Transformer Oil Matrices to the Internal Standards on PCB Quantification.Y. Y. Shu, C. Chiu, J. E. Dowdall, and R. C. Lao.Report No. CD 94-3, Environmental Technology Centre, Environment Canada, 1993.

3.PUF Cleaning and Extraction Procedure by Microwave?Assisted Process (MAPTM). Y. Y. Shu, J. Holmes, and R. C. Lao. Report NO. DO 1-94, Environmental Technology Centre, Environment Canada (1994).

4.Pre-Test Microwave Oven Conditions for PUF Extractions: Behaviour of Solvent and PUF      Matrix to Microwave Energy. J. Holmes and Y. Y. Shu, Report No. CD 94-4,Environmental Technology Centre, Environment Canada (1994).

5.PUF Cleaning and Extraction Method by Microwave?Assisted Process (MAPTM): Part II. Y. Y. Shu, J. Holmes, and R. C. Lao. Report NO. DO 2-94, Environmental Technology Centre, Environment Canada (1994).

6.The Application of Microwave-Assisted Process (MAPTM) to Ambient Air Sample Analysis. Y. Y. Shu, J. Holmes, and R. C. Lao, Report NO. DO 3-94, Environmental Technology Centre, Environment Canada (1994).

7.Application to Sample Extraction of Urban Dust Reference Material Using Microwave-Assisted Process (MAPTM).Y. Y. Shu, J. Holmes, R. C. Lao, J. Pare, and C. Chiu Report NO. DO 4-94, Environmental Technology Centre, Environment Canada (1994).

8.Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation of Particulate Matter and Filter for the Determination of PAHs in Ambient Air Sample.Y. Y. Shu, J. Holmes, R. C. Lao, J.Pare, and C. Chiu Report NO. DO 5-94, Environmental Technology Centre, Environment Canada (1994).

ROC Governments

1."Role of the National Institute for Chemical Analysis and Its Program Delivering Mechanism. The Trace Analysis for Toxic Organic Substances". R. C. Lao, C. C. Chiu, and Y. Y. Shu, Environmental Technology Centre, Environment Canada. Presented by R. C. Lao at Environmental Protection Administration, Taipei,Taiwan, December 21 - 22, 1993.

2."Environmental Damage, Investigation, Analysis and Assessment Training Lecture",Invited by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, Government of ROC, May 2 - 7, 1994.

3."加拿大環境組織與法令 Canadian Environmental Organization and Environmental Protection Act", 環境保護署出版,322頁。R. C. Lao, W. Tsao, Y. Y. Shu, P. C. Lee, and H. Wei., August, 1995.Total Pages: 322.